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Marlowe, Philip. Philip Marlowe was created by Raymond Chandler (Carmady, John Dalmas) and appeared in eight novels and collections and three movies from 1939 to 1958, beginning with The Big Sleep.

Philip Marlowe is, with Sam Spade, one of the two most significant detective characters in hard-boiled detective fiction. Marlowe essentially created the archetype of the Bellem, the wise-cracking, cynical, two-fisted hard-boiled detective. Marlowe is college educated and smart, but he is not an intellectual. He is tough but not brutal, a good investigator but not a refined egghead, and romantic without being soppy. He runs his own detective agency, having been thrown out of the L.A.P.D. because of his refusal to follow orders. He is fond of chess.

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