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Hargraves, Dr. Dr. Hargraves was created by Cecil B. White and appeared in “The Retreat to Mars” (Amazing Stories, Aug. 1927) and “The Return of the Martians” (Amazing Stories, Apr. 1928). Dr. Hargraves is a famous archaeologist who, while on a dig in Africa, discovers an enormous metal building clearly produced by an advanced civilization. Inside the building is a set of “picture books” which Hargraves manages, after some effort, to use. The books describe attempts by Martians to explore and colonize Earth. Every effort failed, and even a special race of creatures the Martians bred to survive Earth’s gravity broke free and multiplied in the wilds of Earth. In the sequel, Hargraves builds a kind of transmitter and communicates with the Martians. He discovers that almost their entire race has died from Earth diseases and that they have regressed culturally and technologically.

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